[A2k] Design Patents Deserve a Closer Look and Reform, Too
claire.cassedy at keionline.org
Fri Jan 31 06:27:28 PST 2014
Design Patents Deserve a Closer Look and Reform, Too
January 31, 2014, 5:30 AM PST
By Julie Hopkins, Partner and Chair, IP Practice Group, Tydings & Rosenberg
Despite continued Congressional gridlock, a handful of leaders are
committed to reforming the patent industry. The two most pivotal pieces of
legislation -- the recently passed Innovation Act in the House, and the
Patent Transparency and Improvements Act in the Senate -- deal broadly with
"patent trolls," entities that enforce patent rights against accused
infringers in an effort to collect licensing fees. Both bills are broadly
supported by the technology industry.
While the path forward in the Senate is still unknown, the advancement of
legislation and the abundance of high-profile patent dispute cases are
important because they have facilitated a renewed interest in patent reform
in the U.S. But for lawyers like me, it also provides a chance to delve
deeper into specific issues -- like design patents -- which, due to a lack of
transparency in the application process and the continued issuance of vague
and overly broad patents, requires reform just as much as the more
mainstream topic of patent trolling.
A common misconception about various patents, in the way they are
characterized, applied for and awarded to owners, is that they are largely
subject to the same statutory restrictions. It is the contrary,
particularly among different patent types, like design and utility patents
(the two most common types of patents), and in how infringement is measured.
Design patents, once overlooked due to their perceived narrow protection,
are becoming recognized as important corporate assets. Ironically easy to
obtain but difficult to invalidate, they cover visual, nonfunctional
characteristics embodied in, or applied to, an article of manufacture --
like the shape of a computer icon. They may relate to the configuration or
shape of an article, the surface ornamentation applied to an article, or to
a combination of the two. Ultimately, a design patent protects only the
appearance of the article and not its structure or functionality.
Design patents can have a broad impact on a variety of popular consumer
goods. For example: Though perhaps overshadowed by the Lululemon Athletica
CEO's controversial statements blaming body type for the perceived
"sheerness" of its popular yoga pants, and his subsequent resignation
following the backlash, the company previously garnered attention for a
design patent infringement case against Calvin Klein. Lululemon claimed
that Calvin Klein infringed on design patents related to the waistband of
its "Astro Pant." The case has since been settled, though few details of
the settlement have been released to date.
In contrast, utility patents protect the way the article is used and how it
functions, such as a newly developed technology to manufacture parts.
The test for determining if an article infringes a design patent is the
"ordinary observer test." Infringement exists if in the eye of the ordinary
observer, giving such attention as a purchaser usually gives, two designs
are substantially the same. The designs are looked at as a whole to
determine infringement, not by conducting a minute analysis of details. In
opposite, the test for literal infringement of a utility patent is the "all
elements test" -- a comparison of the alleged infringing product to every
element of the patent claim.
In further contrast, design patent applications are kept confidential by
the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) during the prosecution process,
while utility patent applications are not -- they are made public by the PTO
after 18 months of the earliest filing date (with a few exceptions). This
transparency spurs greater public participation, prevents duplicative
research, provides knowledge that leads to improvements, and allows
competitors to design around discovered technologies. But under current
law, these benefits of transparency do not confer to design innovators,
shutting out public participation and stifling growth.
All the while, extremely broad design patents -- such as those covering
simple shapes or colors -- continue to be awarded, despite their
susceptibility to invalidity challenges and questions that they may
ultimately not be enforceable. As a result, thoughtful innovation suffers.
The Hague Agreement Concerning International Registration of Industrial
Designs took effect in the U.S. in December 2013, enabling applicants
around the world, including the U.S., to obtain international protection
for design patents in multiple countries by filing one application at
considerable cost savings. Key provisions include provisional rights to
damages, which allows patent owners to collect royalties for infringement
that occurs after publication of the design patent application, but before
the patent issues.
Additionally, patent applications filed under the Hague Agreement are
published during the pendency of prosecution. The Hague filing system
operates alongside the U.S. design patent filing system, and does not
preempt it. Therefore, applicants can elect to file for U.S. design
protection using either system, or both.
It will be interesting to see what, if any, effect the Hague process will
have on the U.S. design patent application process, specifically if it will
influence lawmakers to mirror the process in regard to publication and
provisional protection. The term of U.S. design patents has been extended
from 14 years to 15 years from issuance of the patent to match the Hague
term -- another difference from utility patents, which have a term of 20
years from the date of application.
Regardless, it is becoming increasingly clear that the design patent
application process is in need of reform. As legislators -- along with the
Federal Trade Commission and the Obama Administration -- look at the issue
of patent reform, they must keep in mind this issue of design patents.
At a minimum, adding transparency into the design patent process, similar
to that granted to utility patents, should be addressed, to prevent
companies from being awarded patents for an obscure purpose. But should
legislators get serious on the topic, they must also look at the vastly
different infringement standards and overly broad patents being issued.
Julie Hopkins is a partner and chair of the IP Practice Group at Tydings &
Rosenberg LLP Reach her @JulieAHopkins.
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