[Ip-health] TWN Info: "Unconscionable and indefensible" U.S. 10-year offer to LDCs for pharmaceutical patent waiver

Sangeeta Shashikant sangeeta at twnetwork.org
Wed Oct 21 07:26:37 PDT 2015


Title : TWN Info: “Unconscionable and indefensible” – U.S. 10-year offer to
LDCs for pharmaceutical patent waiver
 Date : 21 October 2015

 Contents: 

TWN Info Service (Intellectual Property,Health and Trade)
21 October 2015
Third World Network
www.twn.my <http://www.twn.my>

“Unconscionable and indefensible” – U.S. 10-year offer to LDCs for
pharmaceutical patent waiver

London, 21 Oct (Sangeeta Shashikant) – The United States’ offer to least
developed countries of a 10-year transition period to grant pharmaceutical
patents is  “unconscionable and indefensible”, according to six influential
US non-governmental organisations (NGOs).

In a letter dated 19 October to President Barack Obama, the NGOs conveyed
this strong criticism in view of the public health and other developmental
challenges facing least developed countries (LDCs).

The letter states, “We fail to understand why the US, alone, continues to
oppose LDCs’ demand – a legally sound and justified request for a
pharmaceutical transition period for as long as they remain LDCs”.

The letter also calls the US position “egregious” as “The LDC markets are of
no significant financial value” and “the US is an important donor and member
of the international community that is active in various LDCs in supporting
HIV treatment programs as well as initiatives such as the Global Fund; hence
the US administration is a major beneficiary of the LDCs’ request”.

The letter which is signed by Oxfam America, Health GAP, Knowledge Ecology
International (KEI), the Union for Affordable Cancer Treatment (UACT), the
Young Professionals Chronic Disease Network (YP-CDN), and Public Citizen
strongly urged the US to “express its full and unconditional support” for
the LDCs’ requested duration.

Last Friday (16 October), the US offered a meager 10-year pharmaceutical
transition period to the most impoverished members of the World Trade
Organization (WTO).  This took place at the meeting of the WTO Council on
Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) held on 15-16
October in Geneva.

The offer was made during informal meetings between the US Ambassador
Michael Punke and Ambassadors representing the WTO LDC Group: Ambassador M.
Shameem Ahsan from Bangladesh, Ambassador Deepak Dhital from Nepal and
Ambassador Christopher Onyanga Aparr from Uganda.

According to trade diplomats, the LDC Ambassadors rejected the US offer.

The impasse between the US and the WTO LDC Group led to the suspension of
TRIPS Council meeting by the acting chair Ambassador Alfredo Suescum from
Panama.

Meetings planned on Monday (19 October) had to be cancelled as US Ambassador
Punke who is personally handling this matter is still consulting Washington
for further instruction.

Ambassador Punke is now in Washington for the annual event of Global
Services Summit on Wednesday, where US Trade Representative Michael Froman
and Ambassador Punke are slated to speak.  In the absence of Ambassador
Punke, the LDC matter will not make any headway, informed sources say.

The US remains the only country vehemently opposing the LDCs’ request for a
pharmaceutical exemption until a country ceases to be a LDC. The European
Union and other WTO members are willing to accept the LDCs’ demands.  The
United Nations (including WHO, UNDP, UNAIDS, UNITAID), the Vatican, the
Global Commission on HIV and Law and multiple US Senators and
Representatives have also expressed unequivocal support for a pharmaceutical
transition period linked to the graduation status of LDCs.

The letter also states that LDCs are the most vulnerable and poorest segment
of the international community and the majority of the LDCs are in the
SubญSaharan region. They are characterized by low per capita income, low
level of human development, and economic vulnerability, in addition to
inherent geographical and environmental constraints, it further points out.

The letter quotes the UN which states that more than 70 percent of the LDC
population lives on less than $2 per day and an estimated 252 million people
live with hunger. It also refers to World Bank data from 2014 which reports
that only 36 percent of least developed countries have access to improved
sanitation facilities while 68 percent have access to improved drinking
water source and as of 2012, two thirds of people in LDCs lacked access to
electricity.

In 2014, GNI per capita for LDCs was US $915, compared to US $55,200 for the
US, the letter further states, adding that LDCs' productive capacity is
highly limited and they have severe infrastructure deficit and that they are
also at the bottom of technology development.

The letter refers to natural calamities that LDCs face such as the recent
earthquake in Nepal, further worsening their living conditions and adding to
the development challenges in these countries, adding that many LDCs are
also challenged by violence, war, conflict and political instability,
symptomatic also of poverty, inequalities and social injustices. “These
countries also suffer enormous health burdens, both of communicable and
communicable diseases. Recently, the Ebola crisis plagued Sierra Leone,
Guinea and Liberia; all LDCs”, stressed the joint letter.

Defending the LDCs’ requested duration, Jamie Love of Knowledge Ecology
International, a signatory to the Obama letter, argues that, “LDC countries
will not amend their patent law for a temporary waiver of the WTO rules.
Right now, many LDC countries have ignored the laws on the books, because of
the temporary waiver, for drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, often encouraged by those
involved in delivering affordable drugs, who are working with tight budgets.
But this is not sustainable.

“NGOs providing services and donors both have been threatened by patent
holders with lawsuits for inducing infringement of patents, and the global
norms for enforcing patents are becoming more strict, and cross border in
nature.  A permanent waiver for LDCs will lead to model law waivers for drug
patents, and give countries the incentive, stability and technical
assistance they need to ensure that they have access to generic medicines."

Rohit Malpani, Director of Policy and Analysis at M้decins Sans Fronti่res
Access Campaign, in supporting the LDCs’ demand states, “We work in over
half of the world's countries that are classified as least-developed, and
our medical teams know all too well the impact of medicines and vaccines
being priced out of reach" and "If the world’s poorest countries are forced
to introduce patents on medicines prematurely, prices on life-saving drugs
will rise and millions of people will be treading the fine line between
staying alive and dying."

Stephanie Burgos of Oxfam America said the US government’s opposition to the
reasonable request by the world’s poorest countries for a permanent waiver
from applying global intellectual property rules is unconscionable. It runs
counter to the Obama Administration’s commitment to support country-led
development and puts the US on the wrong side of history in efforts to
improve global health through access to medicines for all.

Brook Baker of Health Gap said that the US is offering a miserly 10-year
extension of LDC’s freedom from pharmaceutical monopolies not because the
poorest countries in the world are profit centers for Big Pharma and Big Bio
but to make a political point and to tell a big lie. The political point is
that they will always go to bat for the multinational bio-pharmaceutical
empire (even though US companies routinely avoid paying US taxes by
exporting profits to tax-havens in Ireland and elsewhere).

The big lie is that pharmaceutical monopolies are good medicine for even the
weakest economies, a tenet of pharmaceutical fundamentalism disproven by all
available economic evidence.

Ten years is simply not long enough.  Nothing of substance will change in
LDCs concerning their need for more affordable generic medicines while they
remain LDCs.  Nothing substantial will change about their need to accelerate
technological capacity in the pharmaceutical sector.  Ten years does not
give certainty – instead it creates a pall of uncertainty.  Ten years is
insufficient to motivate legislative enactment of the pharmaceutical
extension in the majority of LDCs that have not adopted it thus far.  It is
certainly insufficient to motivate generics to set up shop in LDCs.

The ten-year demand by the US is cynical posturing without principle at its
worst and threatens the health of one billion people living with inadequate
health care in LDCs.+
 




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