[A2k] Luisa Fernanda Guzmán Mejía: Development Agenda in WIPO, the turn for libraries and archives
manon.ress at keionline.org
Tue Dec 3 11:25:17 PST 2013
Development Agenda in WIPO, the turn for libraries and archives
By Luisa Fernanda Guzmán Mejía
After approving the Marrakesh Treaty, the World Intellectual Property
Organization (WIPO) will resume the Development Agenda. Now is turn for
reviewing the needs of libraries and archives, but will there be political
will to do so?
Libraries and archives have the mission to collect, preserve and provide
access to knowledge and information. Undoubtedly, they are guarantors of
fundamental rights such as freedom of expression and access to information.
These institutions contribute for improving education, research and
employment, and as a source of entertainment; moreover, they promote the
flow of ideas and freedom of thought, creativity and innovation. Due to
their important role, they are central axis of cultural ecosystem.
Although libraries invest annually about 24 billion dollars in books,
magazines, audiovisual and digital content, and although they serve over
1,000 million users worldwide, there is no clear legal scenario that allows
them to perform basic activities of their mission. In some countries, for
instance, the public material lending requires the express prior
authorization of copyright holders. This puts out libraries in a vulnerable
position by implying that their activities are illegal since it is
unrealistic to request all these permissions.
The absence of guarantees for the exercise of fundamental rights within the
copyright system, such the exceptions and limitations, threatens the
effective compliance of the mission of libraries and archives, sentences
them to obsolescence and restricts them to provide their services in a
traditional consulting room, without the possibility of exploring the
potential of the digital environment. This situation is paradoxical
especially in developing countries like Colombia, where, in some regions,
libraries are the only form of access to books.
According to a WIPO study conducted in 2008, 21 out of 184 Member States of
the United Nations agency has no exceptions and limitations for libraries
and archives. Meanwhile, only 27 enshrine a general exception that is not
very useful. Nowadays the activity of these institutions practically depend
on the “goodwill” of authors and rightholders, who have been “so kind” to
not bring suit for the works’ uses carried out in most of the countries in
This situation will be analyzed precisely in the WIPO Standing Committee on
Copyright and Related Rights (SCCR), the committee responsible for these
subjects, which will meet from 16 to 20 December in Geneva.
In Search for a Solution
In 2004, Brazil and Argentina proposed the Development Agenda in order to
integrate the UN Millennium Development Goals into all WIPO activities.
That same year, Chile proposed advancing a WIPO consensus on minimum
standards to guarantee libraries, archives and the education system to
fulfill their mission, and for people with disabilities to exercise their
rights. In this context, exceptions and limitations should be considered in
all legislation for restoring the balance between rights of rightholders
The Interests at Stakes: Proposals and Positions on an International
Instrument for Libraries and Archives
In 2008, under the Development Agenda’s “umbrella”, Brazil, Chile,
Nicaragua and Uruguay posed a work proposal that followed the original
In 2011, this work-plan was completed on two different regulatory proposals:
a. The African Group submitted a project, with a holistic approach, which
recommended a treaty for benefiting people with disabilities, teaching and
research institutions, and libraries and archives. However, it was decided
to address them separately at WIPO.
b. Brazil, Ecuador and Uruguay introduced a complementary proposal to the
African Group project, which incorporates the considerations of a sectoral
document (result of the effort of the International Federation of Library
Associations –IFLA–, the International Council on Archives –ICA–, the
Electronic Information for Libraries –EIFL– and Innovarte) that Brazil had
previously submitted to WIPO.
These treaty proposals seek essentially to establishing minimum legal
guarantees within the copyright system for libraries and archives to
preserve the works (including digitization), reproduce and provide copies,
facilitate legal deposit, lending and parallel import, cross-border uses,
use of orphan works, withdrawn or retracted right; circumvent technological
protection measures, carry out translations and make explicit the liability
limitation for these entities for the illegal acts that their users may
It is worth stating that the Marrakesh Treaty already solved one of the
great difficulties of libraries and archives when providing services to
people with visual disabilities. This, however, requires that these
institutions are considered authorized entities in the treaty national
Despite calls for a treaty’s signing, the truth is that the instrument
nature is not yet defined. This reflects the tensions between developing
countries (in favor of a treaty) and developed countries, which undoubtedly
seem to lean towards a non-binding instrument (recommendation, model law,
etc.). The United States has expressed its reluctance to negotiate a treaty
on the subject. The delegate has argued that their legislation already
included specific exceptions and limitations for libraries, and that they
have the fair use doctrine.
Meanwhile, the industry, led by the International Publishers Association
(IPA), has argued that existing flexibilities are not only adequate but
also preferable. There is no need for new binding international rules that
restrict freedom of development of locally adapted exceptions. Similarly,
the representative of this organization (that sometime has even worked
jointly with IFLA) has stated that the circumstances for the Marrakesh
Treaty’s adoption were special and unique due to simple humanitarian
reasons, which in his opinion are not extendable to the libraries and
Next meeting at WIPO
The agenda for December at WIPO SCCR involves working on a proposed treaty
to protect broadcasting organizations and two other proposals on exceptions
and limitations (for libraries and educational uses). For that reason, we
believe the first obstacle to be overcome will be the definition of the
Group B countries or developed countries (the European Union and the U.S.)
want to prioritize the treaty for the protection of broadcasting
organizations. Precisely the Central Europe and the Baltic States Group
(CEBS) proposed a roadmap for expediting the works of the SCCR by refining
the text and with an eye on a diplomatic conference in 2015. Meanwhile, the
Development Agenda Group (Brazil) and the African Group do not share this
approach. They prefer to give priority to the exceptions and limitations.
But it is likely that the balance tilts the other side.
Many believe that WIPO was very worn out after Marrakesh’s negotiation,
hence it will need a break to come back to the Development Agenda’s issues,
more controversial among members because it implies building a guarantee
system for users. Most likely, the broadcasting treaty will be used to
create such space.
Karisma Foundation will attend this WIPO session to strengthen the civil
society participation in the region and to monitor the position of the
Colombian government, which unlike countries like Argentina, Brazil, Chile,
Ecuador and Uruguay has not been very active on such relevant issues.
Luisa Fernanda Mejia Guzman is a lawyer and researcher at Karisma
Foundation’s Law, Internet and Society Group. Twitter: @ lfdagm
Manon Ress, Ph.D.
Knowledge Ecology International, KEI
manon.ress at keionline.org, tel.: +1 202 332 2670
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