[Ip-health] Aid Not Enough to Fight AIDS
Riaz K Tayob
riaz.tayob at gmail.com
Thu Dec 1 08:04:08 PST 2011
[So where else to move and act?]
Aid Not Enough to Fight AIDS
By Miriam Gathigah
*BUSAN, Dec 1, 2011 (IPS) - Billions of people are marking yet another
World AIDS Day - this one themed "Getting to Zero", for zero
AIDS-related deaths, zero new infections, and zero stigma and
But in Africa, what may be needed is zero tolerance for corruption so
that funds required to fight HIV/AIDS and create awareness around the
virus do not get siphoned away.
"In East Africa alone, Uganda has had its main source of HIV funding
suspended. Kenya has, on several occasions, come close to a similar fate
due to evidence of massive misappropriation of HIV funding," says John
Peter Kaguruzi, a public policy analyst in Rwanda.
"In Djibouti, of the 5.3 million dollars given as an anti-HIV grant,
750,000 dollars were spent on expenditure that cannot be explained.
Similar stories are rife in Zambia and Mali. More audits would most
likely reveal misuse of such funds which has denied many people access
to preventive as well as curative initiatives," Kaguruzi says.
Creating awareness has been important in places like Kenya where those
afflicted were stigmatised and seen as promiscuous. When they died, they
were buried in a polythene bag.
Over the years, Kenyans have become more aware of HIV/AIDS but that has
not reduced the stigma attached to the disease. Neither has it
significantly curbed risky sexual behaviour. Some 1.4 million Kenyans
are currently living with HIV.
Statistics by UNAIDS <http://www.unaids.org/en/>, the joint United
Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS prevention and cure, show that an
estimated 22.5 million people were living with HIV in Sub-Saharan
Africa. Slightly over half of them are women. Children have not been
spared <http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=105933>; they account for
2.3 million of this figure.
Years of research do not appear to have brought scientists any closer to
discovering a cure for HIV/AIDS, and the condition claims at least one
million lives every year in Sub-Saharan Africa alone.
But if millions of people in Africa infected with HIV are still alive,
it is because of donor funding that makes it possible for them to access
"There's need for more funding to provide treatment," Mary Naliaka, a
nurse in Kenya, told IPS.
But more funding is perhaps not what African countries need.
"Of the 145 countries that receive aid to fight HIV, an audit into 25 of
these countries shows that they received a total of 4.8 billion dollars,
but these grantees cannot account for 39 million dollars. In Mauritania
alone, 67 percent of aid to fight HIV was misused," Kaguruzi explains.
But he is quick to caution that the lost money is not a comprehensive
"This is only an indication that massive corruption exists. In some
countries the audit did not assess the entire grant, only a part of it.
In Djibouti for instance, only 80 percent of the fund was audited,
revealing a 30 percent misappropriation."
Programmes that popularise prevention of HIV/AIDS by creating more
awareness of the condition, HIV programmes in health facilities and the
provision of free condoms are all affected by missing funds.
Ann Kariuki, a counsellor at an HIV/AIDS voluntary testing centre in
Kenya, told IPS: "Often, condoms dispensers are empty. Not so long ago
we would plead with people to use the free condoms provided by the
government through the Ministry of Health. Now there are rarely enough
When the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria
<http://www.theglobalfund.org/> was established in January 2002 as a
public-private partnership, the aim was to provide financial support for
global responses to HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and malaria. However,
with the fund in financial crisis, this may not be possible.
"The Global Fund saves 4,400 lives daily in poor countries, like in
Africa. The ongoing crisis facing the fund is bound to have a negative
impact on HIV prevalence. Already, Sweden has suspended 83 million
dollars to the fund until the crisis is resolved," says Peter Mwendwa,
an HIV/AIDS activist in Uganda.
Sweden is the 11th-biggest contributor to the Global Fund but it is
facing a shortfall of five billion dollars.
In South Africa, the Treatment Action Campaign
<http://www.tac.org.za/community/> (TAC), an AIDS activist movement,
which successfully sued the South African government to provide free
treatment to HIV- positive people, has said that it faces closure if the
Global Fund does not fulfill its funding commitments. The TAC is the
recipient of a five-year grant from the fund for a large portion of its
For many African countries the fund provided an opportunity to deliver
treatment for ailing people, who at that time lived for an average of
about six years
In poor countries, treatment for 70 percent of HIV patients is financed
by the Global Fund. And based on the financial crisis facing the fund,
the millions of people in need of ARVs face an uncertain future.
But an evaluation of how the Global Fund money is spent in Africa has
revealed gross misappropriation of grants, denying many HIV positive
people in need of anti-retroviral drugs an opportunity to live healthy
and normal lives.
As of February 2011 out of 145 poor countries that were recipients of
this grant, the Global Fund had uncovered a misuse of funds in 11
countries, totalling 44.2 million dollars.
Even more unfortunate is the fact that an estimated 63 percent of
misused funds were identified in four countries - Djibouti, Mali,
Mauritania, and Zambia -- all countries with very high HIV prevalence
According to Tiaji Salaam-Blyther, a specialist in global health, in
line with its policy of zero corruption, "the Global Fund is reported to
be seeking compensation of the funds and has already recovered 4.5
million dollars and submitted evidence in support of criminal
investigations in Mali, Mauritania, and Zambia."
At least 20 arrests have been made in these countries as the Global Fund
gets to the bottom of who bears the responsibility of misusing funds for
Mali, Mauritania, and Zambia have also had their grants suspended.
Others whose funds have been suspended or frozen include Chad, Uganda
In order to create transparency and accountability, the Global Fund
released a statement earlier this year stating that it had established
strict measures "to reinforce its financial safeguards and increase its
capacity to prevent and detect fraud and misuse in its grants, many of
which are already underway."
According to the statement, these measures include "expanding the
mandate of firms that monitor expenditure in countries in order to
enhance fraud prevention and detection."
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