[Ip-health] Indian Civil Society statement on equitable access to COVID19 diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines

Priyam Lizmary Cherian priyamlizcherian at gmail.com
Wed Jun 24 08:44:54 PDT 2020

The Indian civil society issued a statement today calling on the Government
of India to support innovation and access for COVID-19 related diagnostics,
therapeutics and vaccines. The statement has been signed by 25
organisations and 265 individuals.
Read the statement below:

*Indian Civil Society Statement*


*New Delhi, 24 June 2020*

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the WHO on 11th March 2020. There is an
urgent need for policies that will effectively encourage and regulate
research, production and access to diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines
for COVID-19 to ensure that they are accessible to all without any

We appreciate the fact that the Government of India has initiated policies
and mobilized funding for COVID-19 Research and Development (R&D) for
diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines. Prominent among these policies and
efforts is the funding for various vaccine candidates from Department of
Biotechnology (DBT)- Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council
(BIRAC)[1] <#_ftn1>, ‘Research Strategy for immediate response and
long-term preparedness to combat COVID-19 infection’; setting up of
the COVID-19
Research Consortium[2] <#_ftn2>; Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research’s (CSIR) work on the synthesis of drugs under clinical trials for
generic manufacturers.[3] <#_ftn3>

While various government research institutions, pharmaceutical companies
and universities across the world - including in India - race to develop
vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics against COVID-19, there is a growing
concern on accessibility, affordability and availability of these medical
products for people and the most vulnerable communities in developing

The current public health emergency specifically demands a shift from
‘business as usual’ practices of the pharmaceutical Industry. Entrenched in
proprietary control of data, know-how and Intellectual Property (IP) run
counter to the need of the hour: increased openness in the sharing of research
knowledge, data and IP - based on the ethos of ‘science benefiting all of

In this context, we highlight the call from UN Secretary-General and
various world leaders to treat COVID-19 diagnostics, therapeutics and
vaccines as *global public goods. *However, India needs to proactively
support this call and pave the strategic roadmap to ensure that the same
translates into action nationally and internationally.

Concerns on access primarily emanate from the lack of clarity on how to
achieve open sharing of research knowledge, data and IP - both at the
national and the global level – desperately needed to accelerate scientific
progress and scaling up of manufacturing for COVID-19 diagnostics,
therapies and vaccines.

*In this regard, we call upon the government of India: *

1.      To take measures at the international and national level to ensure
support for open innovation for COVID-19 related drugs, diagnostics, and
vaccines development. An international project COVID-19 Technology Access
Pool (C-TAP)[4] <#_ftn4> to share IP, scientific data, and know-how to
fight the coronavirus pandemic was launched by the World Health
Organization. India while supporting this initiative should call for
binding norms to be adopted by the WHO and its member states to ensure that
sharing of data, know-how and IP is applicable to all stakeholders – public
and private – involved in developing COVID-19 medical tools.

2.      To ensure that the DBT-BIRAC COVID-19 Research Consortium and other
initiatives by DST, CSIR, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) and the
office of the Principal Scientific Advisor follow the approach of the
erstwhile Open Source Drug Discovery in India for sharing data and know-how
and further ensure that the government retains the rights to issue
non-exclusive licenses to manufacturers, for the products developed from
such funding.

3.      To invoke provisions[5] <#_ftn5> under Indian Patents Act to ensure
that patents granted by Indian patent office on COVID-19 related
diagnostics, treatment and vaccines are identified and are revoked
immediately in public interest or compulsory licenses are issued without
prior negotiation or government use provisions are invoked, or inventions
and/or patents are acquired by the government for public purposes which
will facilitate efficiency in access and increase manufacturing capacity
for any COVID-19 related diagnostics, treatment and vaccines. In this
regard government should also urgently remedy the erroneous grant of
patents to the drug remdesivir under Section 66 of the Patents Act.[6]

4.      To require the submission of all license agreements[7] <#_ftn7>
related to COVID-19 related diagnostics, treatment and vaccines including
Gilead’s license agreement[8] <#_ftn8> on remdesivir and scrutinize the
same to assess their impact on access to the medical products for patients
globally. While Indian companies commercially benefit from the agreement
with Gilead, it is not acceptable that India, which claims to be the
‘pharmacy of the world’ should support an agreement that leaves out 70
countries, nearly half the world population, from benefiting from generic
competition on a COVID-19 drug from India.  The agreement undermines
India’s role as a leader in global public health.

5.      To ensure that any of the COVID-19 related diagnostics,
therapeutics and vaccines, whether patented or not be made available free
of cost to patients in the public and private sector. In this context, we
would like to draw your attention to drugs that are being used and recently
included in India’s clinical management protocol[9] <#_ftn9> to treat
COVID-19 disease. We request the government to ensure that there is no
profiteering by private hospitals and companies from the pandemic who are
selling such drugs to patients. An example of such profiteering is the
price charged by Roche for the drug tocilizumab prescribed in the private
sector to severe COVID-19 patients with Cytokine-Release Syndrome (CRS)[10]
<#_ftn10> at INR 60,000 (approx. USD 600) for a vial[11] <#_ftn11>.
Multiple sources of tocilizumab are needed to increase manufacturing
capacity and decrease the price of the drug. We also urge the government to
invoke the provisions of the Drug Price Control Order, to ensure prices for
COVID-19 diagnostics, treatment and vaccines are controlled based on the
cost of manufacture. The cost of manufacture of tocilizumab is estimated to
be as low as USD 40 (approx. INR 3050), given that the manufacturing costs
of monoclonal antibodies are often below USD 100 (approx. INR 7625) per
gram when produced on a large-scale[12] <#_ftn12>.

6.      To ensure that guidelines and rules for ‘monitored emergency use’
[13] <#_ftn13> are in place so that if the Central Drugs Standard Control
Organization (CDSCO) approves and Indian Health Ministry introduces new
drugs like remdesivir it will be done so in compliance with such guidelines
and rules. The WHO recommends[14] <#_ftn14> that new investigational drugs
such as remdesivir be introduced after a scientific risk-benefit analysis
and ethical review, efforts to ensure informed consent of the patient and
requirements that the results of such emergency use are documented and
shared promptly with the wider medical and scientific community and the

7.      To ensure that all rapid approvals and various permissions by the
CDSCO on therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19 be published on time making
full disclosure of the data while ensuring that all people participating in
clinical trials are protected, including respecting their dignity and human

8.      To ensure rapid sharing of genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 viruses
conducted by ICMR-National Institute of Virology and CSIR. This is
significant for the development and evaluation of new diagnostics, drugs
and vaccines considering how the virus is spreading in India. However, such
sharing should be subject to terms and conditions that ensure fair and
equitable sharing of benefits as well as those conditions which ensure that
intellectual property on the sequences and its use is claimed. We also call
upon the CSIR, ICMR and DBT to ensure that the sequencing should be
accompanied with de-identified meta-data from patients and shared upon
request with laboratories, clinicians, epidemiologists in India to improve
research on the impact of different strains of the disease.[15] <#_ftn15>

With effective leadership, India can contribute to R&D underway to develop
effective diagnostics, treatments and vaccines for COVID-19 by scaling up
their manufacture to meet global needs and ensuring policies and norms so
that they can be accessed and distributed to people who need them most in
developing countries.

As civil society, we call on the Indian government to take immediate action
by prioritizing public health needs and ensure availability, accessibility,
and affordability of medical diagnostics, treatments and vaccines needed to
respond to the COVID-19 pandemic. Lives of millions of people in India, and
across the world depend on it.


1.             Aarti Gupta, Goa, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

2.             Aastha Gandhi, Law Student

3.             Abha Bhaiya, Feminist activist

4.             Abhijay Mahajan, Engineer

5.             Abhishek Manchanda, Advocate

6.             Abou Mere, Activist

7.             Achin Vanaik, retired professor

8.             Aditya Dhingra, Lawyer

9.             Aditya Vermani, Student Lawyer

10.         Adsa Fatima, Health activist, Delhi

11.         Advait Tambe, Law Clerk, Supreme Court of India

12.         Afsha Sethi, Management Consultant

13.         Amar Jesani,  Editor, Indian Journal of Medical Ethics

14.         Ambika Nair, Freelance writer

15.         Amit Singh Sethi, Advocate

16.         Amrita Chhachhi

17.         Amrita Limbu, TB Survivor & Activist

18.         Amritananda Chakravarti, Advocate

19.         Anand Grover, Senior Advocate

20.         Anandi Yuvaraj,

21.         Anita Cheria, OpenSpace, Bangalore

22.         Anita Patil, Jalgaon, Maharashtra, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

23.         Anjali Gopalan, Activist

24.         Anna Matthew, Advocate

25.         Anurag Mehta, Chemical Engineer

26.         Archana Jain, Gwalior, M.P., Global Alliance for Human Rights

27.         Arif Jaffar, Social Activist

28.         Arshad Sheikh, Advocate

29.         Arshdeep Bains, Student

30.         Arthi Pai, Sangam Sanstha

31.         Arundhati Dhuru, NAPM

32.         Ashok Rao Kavi, male sexual health activist

33.         Ashutosh Sharma, Poet and Journalist

34.         Athul Rosha, Student Lawyer

35.         Avi Singh, Advocate

36.         Ayaz Khan, Advocate

37.         Ayushi Priyadarshini, Lawyer-LLM Candidate

38.         Banaani Deka

39.         Biraj Patnaik, Human Rights activist

40.         Biraj Swain, Media critic

41.         Biswajit Dhar, Professor JNU

42.         Brijesh Dubey, Activist

43.         Celina, Goa, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

44.         Clarinda Desouza, Advertising Professional

45.         David Daisy, Chennai, Tamilnadu, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

46.         Daxa Patel, HIV activist

47.         Deeksha Dwivedi, Advocate.

48.         Deepa V, Health Activist, Delhi

49.         Devaki Jain, Economist, writer

50.         Devaki Nambiar, PhD, public health professional

51.         Dimple Oberoi, Vahali

52.         Dinesh Abrol, Convenor National Working Group on Patent Laws

53.         Disha Verma, Lawyer

54.         Divya Sarma

55.         Dr. A.G.Rajalakshmi, Department Biotechnology,
Assistant Professor, SNMV CAS, Coimbatore

56.         Dr. Abhishek Bhattacharya

57.         Dr. Asha Hegde

58.         Dr. Ashok Rau

59.         Dr. Ashwin Mohan, Resident Psychiatrist

60.         Dr. Bhavika Mehta

61.         Dr. Dhananjaya Saranath, Executive Director, Research Studies
and Additional Projects, Cancer Patients Aid Association, Mumbai

62.         Dr. Gopal Dabade, AIDAN

63.         Dr. Jerryl Banait, Resident Dermatologist

64.         Dr. Mira Shiva (Public Health Physician)

65.         Dr. Mohamed Khader Meeran, MGIMS , Sevagram

66.         Dr. Narendra Gupta, Advisor Prayas Rajasthan

67.         Dr. Niang, Manipur, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

68.         Dr. P.K. Sarkar, Foundation for Heath Action

69.         Dr. Prabhat Kumar Saha, Assistant Professor of Law, Faculty of
Law, Banaras Hindu University

70.         Dr. Prabhat Kumar Saha, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law,
Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi

71.         Dr. Rushikesh Andhalkar

72.         Dr. S L Pawar,, Vice President, Drug Action Forum, Karnataka

73.         Dr. Sanjay Lakhepatil, Agriculturalist and Horticulturist

74.         Dr. Shakeel, CHARM

75.         Dr. Soma KP,  Independent Policy Analyst/researcher gender and

76.         Dr. Sundararaman T, Global Coordinator, Peoples Health Movement

77.         Dr. Sunil Kaul, The Ant, Assam

78.         Dr. Vandana Prasad, Public Health Professional

79.         Dr. Veena Shatrugna, Medical Scientist

80.         Eldred Tellis, Executive Director, Sankalp Rehabilitation Trust

81.         Elijah John Mathew, Social Worker

82.         Firdaus Moosa, Advocate

83.         Fuzail Ahmed Auyubi, Advocate

84.         Ganesh Acharya,TB survivor, TB ACTIVIST Mumbai

85.         Ganapathi Chinnala . Advocate. Visakhapatnam

86.         Gautam Mody

87.         Gayatri Dabir, Law Associate

88.         Geeta Chitroda, Gujarat, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

89.         Gita Sen, Public Health Researcher

90.         Githa Hariharan, Writer

91.         Gopal Shankar Narayan, Senior Advocate

92.         Gouranga Ch. Mohapatra, State Convener JSA, Odisha

93.         Govind Kelkar

94.         Govind Kelkar, Executive Director and Professor, GenDev Centre
for Research and Innovation

95.         Gyanesh Mishra, Law Student

96.         Hemant Kumar, Advocate

97.         Himmpui, Mizoram, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

98.         Ibad Mushtaq, Advocate

99.         Ishwar Sethi, Student lawyer

100.     Jairus Banaji, Historian

101.     Jashodhara Dasgupta, Independent Researcher, New Delhi

102.     Jennifer Mirza, Film and TV producer

103.     Justice D. Hariparanthaman (Retd)

104.     K Padma, Advocate

105.     K Ravi Chander, Social Activist

106.     K. Khadar, Vali, Andhra Pradesh, Global Alliance for Human Rights

107.     K.Leninbarathi, Head,Department of Physics, SNMV College of Arts
and Science, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, Member,ISRC

108.     Kajal Patil, Surat, Gujarat, Global Alliance for Human Rights

109.     Kalyani Menon Sen, Feminist Activist

110.     Kamlesh Sharma, Haryana, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

111.     Kapila Gureja, Independent Consultant, Development Sector

112.     Karmanya Pandey, Student Lawyer

113.     Kavita Lamani, Goa, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

114.     Kavita Namdev, Madhya Pradesh, Global Alliance for Human Rights

115.     Ketho Angami, President ,ARK Foundation, Nagaland

116.     Kiran Bisht, Uttarakhand, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

117.     Kriti Shukla, Disabilities and Public health consultant

118.     Kritika Aggarwal, Advocate

119.     Laksh Manocha, Law Associate

120.     Laksh Singhvi, Lawyer

121.     Lakshmi Menon

122.     Laxmi Chaudhari, Rajasthan, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

123.     Loon Gangte, Health Activist

124.     Lorraine Misquith, Advocate, Public Health Professional

125.     Madhuri Dewangan, Chandrapur, Global Alliance for Human Rights

126.     Mahima Jain, Audit Associate

127.     Meena Dalal, Haryana, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

128.     Meena Seshu, Sangam Sanstha

129.     Mini Mathew, Advocate

130.     Mohan Kataraki, Senior Advocate

131.     Monalisa Mishra

132.     Monica Sharma, Research Scholar

133.     Mumtaz Imtiaz, Caterer

134.     Mundrika Gahlot, Delhi, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

135.     N Venugopal, Journalist

136.     Nalini Nayak, SEWA Kerala

137.     Namita Jaradhara, Sivasagar, Assam, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

138.     Nandita Gandhi, Activist

139.     Nandita Rao, Advocate

140.     Naveen Nagarjuna, Advocate

141.     Navjyot Altaf, Visual Artist

142.     Nehmat Kaur, Advocate

143.     Nihal Singh Rathod, Advocate

144.     Nikhil Borwarnkar, Advocate

145.     Nilesh Ukey, Advocate

146.     Nilima Dutta, Advocate

147.     Nisha Biswas

148.     Nisha Roy, West Bengal, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

149.     Nishchal Anand, Businessman- Lawyer

150.     Nitu Sanadhiya, Advocate

151.     Norma Alvares, Advocate

152.     Noyanika Dixit, Retail and Fashion Correspondent

153.     Nupur Kumar, Advocate

154.     Paavni Jain, Future Law Associate Candidate

155.     Padma Deosthali, independent Researcher

156.     Pallavi Singh, Advocate

157.     Pallavi Singh, Jammu (J&K), Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

158.     Pamela Philipose, Journalist

159.     Paras Nath Singh,Advocate

160.     Parv Chopra, Financial Analyst

161.     Pooja Thakur, Chandigarh, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

162.     Pragya Bansiwal, Student

163.     Prakash Mahadik, Advocate

164.     Prakriti Tripathi, Law Student

165.     Prashant Padmanabhan, Advocate

166.     Prastut Dalvi, Advocate

167.     Prithviraj Chaudhar, Student Lawyer

168.     Priyam Cherian, Advocate

169.     Priyanka Prasanth, Student

170.     Purbayan Chakraborty, Law Student

171.     Pyara Lal Garg, Jan Swasthya Abhiyan, Punjab and Chandigarh

172.     Pyoli Swatija, Lawyer

173.     R Meera, Secretary WINS

174.     R Vaigai, Senior Advocate

175.     Raagini Rao, Advocate

176.     Rahul Karmerkar, Advocate

177.     Rajan Gurnani, Asst. Professor

178.     Rajini Suresh, Designer

179.     Raju Moray, Advocate

180.     Raman Chawla, Advocate

181.     Rani, Jammu & Kashmir, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

182.     Raunaq Aulakh, Lawyer

183.     Ravi Duggal, Independent Public health researcher,Mumbai

184.     Ravi Nair, Human Rights Researcher

185.     Rebecca John Kottayam, Homemaker

186.     Reena Kanekar, Bhandara, Maharashtra, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

187.     Reji K. Joseph, Associate Professor, Institute for Studies in
Industrial Development, New Delhi

188.     Ritu Dewan, Vice President, Indian Society of Labour Economics

189.     Rohini Hensman, Writer and researcher

190.     Roma Biswas, West Bengal, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

191.     Rupa Panalal, Social Worker

192.     S. Durga, Andhra Pradesh, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

193.     S. Krishnaswamy, AIPSN (Retired Professor, ex Madurai Kamaraj
University, Madurai )

194.     S.Srinivasan, AIDAN and LOCOST

195.     Sachidanand Shetty, Restauranter

196.     Sagari R Ramdas, Veterinary Scientist, Food Sovereignty Alliance,

197.     Sakshi Barbate, Law Student

198.     Sakthivel Selvaraj, Public Health Activist

199.     Samyak Gangwal, Advocate

200.     Sandeep Bhimekar, Advocate

201.     Sandeep Pandey Socialist Party (India)

202.     Sandhya Gokhale, Film Producer

203.     Sandhya Srinivasan, Consulting Editor

204.     Sangamitra Iyengar

205.     Sanjay Singhvi, Senior Advocate

206.     Santosh Paul, Senior Advocate

207.     Saransh Chaturvedi, LL.M, Rajiv Gandhi School of Intellectual
Property Law, IIT Kharagpur

208.     Saroja Puthran, Karnataka, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

209.     Sarojini N, Public Health Practitioner, Delhi

210.     Sarthak Roy, Advocate

211.     Saumya Srivastava, Lawyer-LLM Candidate

212.     Saurabh Chauhan, Advocate

213.     Scharada Dubey, Author & Communications Consultant

214.     Seema Ghige, Raigad (Bhira), Maharashtra, Global Alliance for
Human Rights (GAHR)

215.     Shakeeb Ahmed, Banker

216.     Sharif Rangnekar, Curator and Communications Consultant

217.     Shaurya Bhalla , Businessman Lawyer

218.     Shiva P, Advocate

219.     Shivangi Rai, Shimla Himachal Pradesh, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

220.     Shoba Moundekar, Nagpur, Maharashtra, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

221.     Shrishti Rastogi, Graphic Designer

222.     Shruti Jain, Advocate

223.     Shubangi Patil, Kolhapur, Maharashtra, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

224.     Shubh Shivdasani, Producer, Creative Producer

225.     Shubham Bharti, Law Associate, Samwad

226.     Shyamala Natraj

227.     Siddharth Jain, Analyst

228.     Siddharth Luthra, Senior Advocate

229.     Simran Ahluwalia, Industry Analyst

230.     Sindhuri Nandkumar, Journalist

231.     Soni Gupta, Dhanbad, Jharkand, Global Alliance for Human Rights

232.     Sudip Chaudhuri, Centre for Development Studies, Trivandrum

233.     Sujata Patel, Distinguished Professor, Savitribai Phule Pune

234.     Sumi Krishna, Independent scholar, Bengaluru

235.     Suneeta Dhar, Activist

236.     Sunita Bandewar, Health, Ethics and Law Institute of Forum for
Medical Ethics Society, Mumbai;  Vidhayak Trust, Pune

237.     Sunita Jangra, Rohtak, Haryana, Global Alliance for Human Rights

238.     Surangma Singh, Doctor

239.     Surbi Karwa, Advocate

240.     Surender Kaur, Punjab, Global Alliance for Human Rights (GAHR)

241.     Susan Abraham, Advocate

242.     Susie Tharu

243.     Swati  Sinha, Raipur, Chattisgarh, Global Alliance for Human
Rights (GAHR)

244.     Tapan Chatterjeee, Aviation retired

245.     Tariq Islam, Professor

246.     Teesta Setalvad, Secretary Citizens for Justice and Peace

247.     Thomas Matthew, Defence scientist & engineer

248.     Tripti Tandon, Advocate

249.     Uma Chakravarti, Feminist historian & film maker

250.     Vaibhav Babar, Businessman- Lawyer

251.     Vaidehi Dubey, MBA Candidate

252.     Vanita Mukherjee, Independent Researcher on Gender and Rights

253.     Varda Mehrotra, Activist

254.     Varghese Iype, Advocate

255.     Varun Mehta, Student

256.     Veena Johari, Advocate

257.     Venkatchala Sarma, Chartered Account

258.     Venkatesh Nayak, Transparency and accountability activist

259.     Vinay Kumar, Student-Lawyer

260.     Vineet Nigam, Consultant

261.     Virginia Saldanha, Co-ordinate, Indian Christian Women's Movement,

262.     Yadavendra Singh

263.     Yogesh Jain, Public Health Physician

264.     Yogita Bharat Pawar, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, Global Alliance for
Human Rights (GAHR)

265.     Yuvan Sharma, Lawyer


1.             All India Drug Action Network

2.             Campaign for access to medicines, medical devices,

3.             Centre for Justice and Peace

4.             Citizens for Justice and Peace

5.             Delhi Network of Positive People (DNP+)

6.             Drug Action Forum, Karnataka

7.             Freedom Foundation

8.             Gujarat State Network of People Living with HIV

9.             India Alliance for Child Rights

10.         Initiative for Health & Equity in Society

11.         ITPC-South Asia

12.         Jan Swasthya Abhiyan

13.         Kripa Foundation, Nagaland

14.         Lawyers Collective

15.         Lok Manch National Facilitation Centre, New Delhi

16.         National Coalition of People Living with HIV

17.         National Trade Union Initiative

18.         Naz Foundation

19.         Payal Foundation

20.         Samraksha

21.         Sangram Sanstha

22.         Sankalp Foundation

23.         South India AIDS Action Programme

24.         TWN Trust

25.         Women Initiatives, WINS


[1] <#_ftnref1> Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC)
is a not-for-profit Public Sector Enterprise, set up by Department of
Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India as an Interface Agency to
strengthen and empower the emerging Biotech enterprise to undertake
strategic research and innovation, addressing nationally relevant product
development needs. See COVID-19 Research Consortium Follow-Up Call of DBT &
BIRAC at https://birac.nic.in/webcontent/1586013981_covid_19_consortium.pdf

[2] <#_ftnref2>

[3] <#_ftnref3> https://urdip.res.in/covid19/vertical3.jsp

[4] <#_ftnref4>

[5] <#_ftnref5> The Patents Act, 1970: Section 66 (Revocation of patent in
public interest); Section 92 (Special provision for compulsory licences on
notifications by Central Government) and Section 100 (Power of Central
Government to use inventions for purposes of Government); Section 102
(Acquisition of inventions and patents by the Central Government)

[6] <#_ftnref6>

[7] <#_ftnref7> The Patents Act, 1970: Section 68 (Assignments, etc., not
to be valid unless in writing and duly executed), Section 69 (Registration
of assignments, transmissions, etc.)

[8] <#_ftnref8>

[9] <#_ftnref9>

[10] <#_ftnref10>Administered intravenously or subcutaneously, tocilizumab
can be used in a single dose (vial of 400mg/20mL), and repeated one or two
times if necessary to treat a person with COVID-19. Tocilizumab may reverse
the cytokine storm and ARDS not by direct action against the virus but by
blocking interleukin-6 (IL-6), a substance produced by the body that boosts
this exaggerated inflammatory response.

[11] <#_ftnref11>

[12] <#_ftnref12>

[13] <#_ftnref13> Monitored Emergency Use of Unregistered and
Investigational Interventions (MEURI) is an ethical protocol developed by
the World Health Organization to evaluate the potential use of experimental
drugs in the event of public health emergencies. The protocol was created
first created by the WHO Ebola Ethics Working Group in 2014 in the context
of the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak. The WHO recommends that the term be
preferred to the term "compassionate use" or "expanded access" for the
controlled use of unregistered treatments in public health emergency

[14] <#_ftnref14>

[15] <#_ftnref15>


Priyam Lizmary Cherian

Legal Officer

Lawyers Collective

A-13, First Floor

Nizamuddin West, Delhi- 110013

Telephone: +91 11 46805507

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